quality performance standards

The extent to which states’ programs are aligned with the NRS standards is not known and was not the primary focus of this workshop. Assessments for accountability, on the other hand, are usually high stakes: The viability of programs that affect large numbers of people may be at stake, resources are allocated on the basis of performance outcomes, and incorrect decisions regarding these resource allocations may take considerable time and effort to reverse—if, in fact, they can be reversed. To the extent that the resources are available for the design, development, and use of an assess-. version of the test he or she receives. Thus, in any specific assessment situation, there are inevitable trade-offs in allocating resources so as to optimize the desired balance among the qualities. For the purpose of accountability, the primary unit of analysis is likely to be larger (the class, the program, or the state). Interpret-. The level of reliability needed for any assessment will depend on two factors: the importance of the decisions to be made and the unit of analysis. If different assessments are used in different programs and different states, one may well question whether they favor some test takers over others, and whether all test takers are given comparable treatment in the testing process. These low scores differ in meaning from low scores that result from a student’s having had the opportunity to learn and having failed to learn. Because of these differences, the ways in which the quality standards apply to instructional and accountability assessments also differ. This lack of control makes it extremely difficult to distinguish between the effects of the adult education program and the effects of the environment.3. All rights reserved. For a discussion on reliability in the context of performance assessment see Crocker and Algina (1986); Dunbar, Koretz and Hoover (1991); NRC (1997); and Shavelson, Baxter and Gao (1993). The discussion then focuses on psychometric qualities examined in the Standards that must be considered in developing and implementing performance assessments. The reader is referred to Bond (1995) and Cole and Moss (1993) for additional information on bias and fairness in testing in general and to Kunnan (2000) for discussions of fairness in language testing. Several of the workshop participants pointed out that issues of fairness, as with validity, need to be addressed from the very beginning of test design and development. All three experts call for certain elements to be present if the social moderation process is to gain acceptance among stakeholders. Milton Keynes, MK12 5TW, © Copyright 2020. ASTM can bring this course to your site! These standards are concerned directly with the parts that make up the product. This error results from variation across groups or from year to year in terms of how well the groups represent the population from which they are sampled. The reader is referred to Anastasi (1988), Crocker and Algina (1986), and NRC (1999b) for additional discussion on the reliability of decisions based on test scores. Braun raised another complicating issue: The NRS educational functioning levels are not unidimensional but are defined in terms of many skill areas (literacy, reading, writing, numeracy, functional and workplace). For a quote or more information, please contact sales here or call 1-877-909-ASTM. The law does allow the states and local programs flexibility in selecting the most appropriate assessment for the student. It is important to note that projecting test A onto test B produces a different result from projecting test B onto test A. If the groups used to collect data for estimating reliability either are too small or do not adequately represent the groups for which the assessments are intended, reliability estimates may be biased. Alternatively, what is the cost of closing down a program that is, in fact, achieving its objectives, but, according to assessment standards, appears not to be? . This could include 'Benchmarking'. In educational settings, many assessments are intended to evaluate how well students have mastered material that has been covered in formal instruction. If there is strong evidence that the assessment is free of bias and that all test takers have been given fair treatment in the assessment process, then conditions for fairness have been met. And for information on reliability in the context of portfolio assessment, see Reckase (1995). However, there is a cost for this in terms of the expense of developing and scoring the assessment, the amount of testing time required, and lower levels of reliability. Additional studies to cross-validate these predictions are necessary if they are to be used with other groups of examinees because the relationships can change over time or in response to policy and instruction. For additional information on reliability, the reader is referred to Brennan (2001), Feldt and Brennan (1993), National Research Council (NRC) (1999b), Popham (2000), and Thorndike and Hagen (1977). Thus, for a low-stakes classroom assessment for diagnosing students’ areas of strength and weakness, concerns for authenticity and educational relevance may be more important than more technical considerations, such as reliability, generalizability, and comparability. Second, there needs to be a pool of experts who are familiar with the content and context, the moderation procedure, and the criteria. Allowing informed comparisons to be made with similar facilities. These potential differences in the assessments used in adult education programs mean that none of the statistical procedures for linking described above are, by themselves, likely to be possible or appropriate. 3. For example, because of a program’s particular resources and teaching expertise or the particular needs of its clientele, it may do an excellent job at teaching reading, but the students’ overall progress is not sufficient to move them from one NRS level to the next. … But, as Braun pointed out, two characteristics of the NRS scales create difficulties for their use in reporting gains in achieve-, ment. Social moderation, however, may provide a basis for framing an argument and supporting a claim about the comparability of assessments across programs and states. 3. Three types of claims can be articulated in a validation argument. Furthermore, the criterion for program effectiveness is a certain percentage of students who gain at least one NRS level, but many students are likely to achieve only relatively small gains in their limited time in adult education programs. To determine the appropriate approach, consultation with professional measurement specialists is important. Another kind of consequence that needs to be considered is impact on the educational processes—teaching and learning. On-Site Training Available. Implementing a quality management system affects every aspect of an organization's performance. Standards for educational achievement have been developed that delineate the values and desired outcomes of educational programs in ways that are both transparent to stakeholders and provide guidance for curriculum development, instruction, and assessment. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Material resources are space (rooms for test development and test administration), equipment (word processors, tape and video recorders, computers, scoring machines), and materials (paper, pictures, audio-and videotapes or disks, library resources). IFC's Environmental and Social Performance Standards define IFC clients' responsibilities for managing their environmental and social risks. Rather, consideration of these standards should inform every decision that is made, from the beginning of test design to final decision making based on the assessment results. In departments where more than one person does the same task or function, standards may be written for the parts of the jobs that are the same and applied to all positions doing that task or function. The descriptions below draw especially on the presentation by Wendy Yen and are further described in Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and NRC (1999c). Again, procedures are described in standard measurement texts. The Standards provide guidance for the development and use of assessments in general. A reliable assessment is one that is consistent across these different facets of measurement. Several general types of comparability and associated ways of demonstrating comparability of assessments have been discussed in the measurement literature (e.g., Linn, 1993; Mislevey, 1992; NRC, 1999c). measurements when the testing procedure is repeated on a population of individuals or groups.” Any assessment procedure consists of a number of different aspects, sometimes referred to as “facets of measurement.” Facets of measurement include, for example, different tasks or items, different scorers, different administrative procedures, and different occasions when the assessment occurs. For example, calibration could be used to estimate, on the basis of a short assessment, the percentage of students in a program or in a state who would achieve a given standard if they were to take a longer, more reliable assessment. The resulting reported scores need to be sensitive to relatively small increments in individual achievement and to individual differences among students. No single approach will be appropriate for all situations. Having clearly defined objectives that can be achieved. Very high levels of reliability are needed when high-stakes decisions are based on assessment results. First, students in adult education programs are largely self-selected, and it would be imprac-, tical to try to obtain a random sample of adults to attend adult education classes. Second, if the adult education classes included students who were randomly selected rather than people who had chosen to take the classes, there would be major consequences for the ways in which the adult education classes were taught. If they are not measuring the same ability, then it becomes very difficult to interpret the “change” in scores. Reliability is defined in the Standards (AERA et al., 1999:25) as “the consistency of . The fundamental meaning of reliability is that a given test taker’s score on an assessment should be essentially the same under different conditions—whether he or she is given one set of equivalent tasks or another, whether his or her responses are scored by one rater or another, whether testing occurs on one occasion or another. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Those receiving adult education services have diverse reasons for seeking additional education. Calibration is a less rigorous type of linking. for supporting all kinds of claims or for supporting a given claim for all times, situations, and groups of test takers. Equating is the most demanding and rigorous, and thus the most defensible, type of linking. This chapter highlights the purposes of assessment and the uses of assessment results that Pamela Moss presented in her overview of the Standards. The purpose of the NRC's workshop was to explore issues related to efforts to measure learning gains in adult basic education programs, with a focus on performance-based assessments. That is, the evidence has been gathered for a particular group or setting, and it cannot be assumed that it will generalize to other groups or settings. ; Energy management standards to help cut energy consumption. In either case, decisions based on these group average scores may be in error. In the context of adult literacy assessment, the issues discussed above— comparability of assessments, insensitivity of the NRS functioning levels to small increments in learning, and the use of gain scores—are also fairness issues. The specific purposes for which the assessment is intended will determine the particular validation argument that is framed and the claims about score-based inferences and uses that are made in this argument. Measure the same thing is fundamentally unfair because of better construct representation, as well as authenticity more... May be in error amount of this book page on your preferred social network or via.. Of factors has to do with the development and use of performance assessments in adult education on,. Keynes, MK12 5TW, © Copyright 2020 defines six ABE levels and six ESOL levels analysis. Al., 1999:25 ) as “ the consistency of subjectivity will be a factor the... 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