java deserialization exploit

New exploit for Java Deserialization • Deserialization vulnerability • New Vectors 1. Tested against 10.0.465 x64. In order to understand how to exploit deserialization vulnerabilities, let’s first quickly review how serialization and deserialization work in Java: The serialization of Java classes is enabled by the class implementing the java.io.Serializable interface. So how can we exploit Java applications via an insecure deserialization bug? His post goes fairly in depth into how the vulnerability works, We use essential cookies to perform essential website functions, e.g. Java deserialization vulnerability example . This chain can be executed either during or after the deserialization process. The Java deserialization problem occurs when applications deserialize data from untrusted sources and is one of the most widespread security vulnerabilities to occur over the last couple years.. Recreate the same asinha object in the memory.. A remote attacker can exploit this issue to bypass authentication and invoke MBean methods, allowing arbitrary code to be executed in the context of the user running the server. 2. Exploiting blind Java deserialization with Burp and Ysoserial November 17, 2017 n00py. Metasploit Framework -- You must have a listener running in msfconsole before running this exploit. And this is what we’ll focus on today: gaining arbitrary code execution using an insecure deserialization bug in a Java application. We’ve talked about exploiting insecure deserialization in PHP applications before: Today, let’s learn to exploit similar vulnerabilities in Java applications! Java deserialization cheat sheet aimed at pen testers; A proof-of-concept tool for generating payloads that exploit unsafe Java object deserialization. CVE-2015-8103 – Jenkins CLI – RMI Java Deserialization allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via a crafted serialized Java object. Learn more, We use analytics cookies to understand how you use our websites so we can make them better, e.g. More information: https://help.github.com/articles/github-community-guidelines/#what-is-not-allowed. Public exploits are available and is easy for attackers to exploit these vulnerabilities.It might be useful to document a bit more about this vulnerability. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. JDBC • Mysql Driver RCE • NTLM Leaking vulnerability in JDBC Driver And remember: trying this on systems where you don’t have permission to test is illegal. Otherwise, keep an eye out for patches and keep dependencies up to date. You signed in with another tab or window. Work fast with our official CLI. Using Ysoserial, you can create malicious Java serialized objects using gadget chains from specified libraries with a single command. This effectively restricts available gadgets. We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. The best part of practicing it is that you get to really know the subject at hand and can attempt to improve upon it for your own needs. JBoss platform on the Linux architecture is currently exploitable. Use responsibly. While performing a web application penetration test, I stumbled upon a parameter with some base64 encoded data within a POST parameter. So look out for differently encoded versions of these signatures as well. For this blog post we are going to attempt the following: Exploit a deserialization bug Even though this vulnerability was detected back in 2015 I am only starting to notice it popping up on engagements more frequently. Learn more. Serialization is a process during which an object in a programming language (say, a Java object) is converted into a format that can be saved to the database or transferred over a network. It is important that the first gadget is self-executing, so a common target for the first gadget would be a hook method during the deserialization process. remote exploit for Linux platform Exploiting Java insecure deserialization. Description. However, this is not a reliable form of protection. You can find here a lot of useful resources.We also have to consider that Oracle plans to dump Java serialization.However, the important thing to remember is that we should just avoid (de)serialization. Data which is untrusted cannot be trusted to be well formed. No checks have been implemented to prevent deserialization of arbitrary objects. they're used to log you in. Apache OFBiz XML-RPC Java Deserialization Posted Aug 17, 2020 Authored by Alvaro Munoz, wvu | Site metasploit.com. Classes that do not implement this interface will not have any of their objects serialized or deserialized. To understand insecure deserialization, we must first understand what serialization is and how it is used in applications. Data sharing and trust: What’s the relationship? Multiple vulnerabilities in the Java deserialization function that is used by Cisco Security Manager could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to execute arbitrary commands on an affected device. A well-known Insecure Deserialization example is the Struts 2 remote execution incident, a java deserialization attack which gained worldwide attention in 2017 for being the attack vector exploited in the Equifax hack. Java Serialization allows us to convert Java Object to a Stream of bytes which we can send through a network or save in a flat file or even in a DB for future usage.Deserialization is the process of converting a stream of bytes back to Java Object which can be used in our program. This module exploits a Java deserialization vulnerability in the getChartImage() method from the FileStorage class within ManageEngine Desktop Central versions . URLConnection • NTLM Leaking (CVE-2019-2426) • New Technology for NTLM Reflection Attack (CVE-2019-1040) 2. Java Deserialization Exploits. We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. A potential attacker can achieve RCE by constructing objects of the right classes that can lead to arbitrary commands. Serializable is a marker interface (has no data member and method). The Bug. Java deserialization vulnerabilities have been making the rounds for several years. To gain code execution, a series of gadgets need to be used to reach the desired method for code execution. Learn more. As per GitHub's Community Guidelines, I have removed the executable JAR files from the releases page. You are also limited to the classes that are available to the application, which can limit what you can do with the exploit. A Java deserialization vulnerability [9] exists in the QRadar RemoteJavaScript Servlet. It was written by Federico Dotta, a Security Advisor at @ Mediaservice.net. See blog Malformed data or unexpected data could be used to abuse application logic, deny service, or execute arbitrary code, when deserialized. Java implements serialization using class interface Java.io.Serializable, to serialize used to attack systems except where explicitly authorized. Insecure deserialization is a type of vulnerability that arises when an attacker is able to manipulate the serialized object and cause unintended consequences in the program’s flow. For example, if the Java object is used as a cookie for access control, you can try changing the usernames, role names, and other identity markers that are present in the object and re-serialize it and relay it back to the application. Java Deserialization Scanner is a Burp Suite plugin aimed at detect and exploit Java deserialization vulnerabilities. For more information, see our Privacy Statement. However, due to transient and static keyword, the uid and password fields have only the default values.. How to protect an application against these vulnerabilities varies and depends greatly on the programming language, the libraries and the serialization format used. If you run into troubles when trying to exploit a Java deserialization, hopefully some of these steps here will help you out. Thanks for reading. (This is where good recon comes in!). for the development of effective defensive techniques, and is not intended to be they're used to gather information about the pages you visit and how many clicks you need to accomplish a task. Millions of developers and companies build, ship, and maintain their software on GitHub — the largest and most advanced development platform in the world. Whereas deserialization refers to the opposite: it’s when the serialized object is read from a file or the network and converted back into an object. To enable research, testing, and secure development of JSO-based services, Metasploit Framework now includes native support for building Java deserialization exploit payloads with the popular open source “ysoserial” project. Deserialization vulnerability in Java: Java provides serialization where object represented as sequence of bytes, serialization process is JVM independent, which means an object can be serialized in a platform and de-serialized on different platform. Thus, attackers are paying more attention to this widespread issue. Example: msfvenom must be installed and available in your PATH. Java deserialization vulnerabilities became more common and dangerous. This command is used to generate the reverse shell payload. An unauthenticated, remote attacker can exploit this, via a crafted Java object, to execute arbitrary Java code in the context of the WebLogic server. The deserialization will be rejected with the following message and the exploit won’t be executed anymore: ObjectInputFilter REJECTED: class com.ttulka.Vulnerable Of course, the filter must include all classes that are involved in the communication, such as request and response data types. This works very similarly to exploiting deserialization bugs using POP chains to exploit PHP deserialization bugs I talked about in this article: In Java applications, these gadgets are found in the libraries loaded by the application. For example, if an application takes a serialized object from the user and uses the data contained in it to determine who is logged in, a malicious user might be able to tamper with that object and authenticate as someone who she is not. Welcome Readers, in the previous two blogs, we have learnt about the various test cases as well as setting up traffic for thick clients using interception proxy. Limiting gadgets can be a great defense strategy but is not a cure-all for deserialization issues. If you want to download the extension and skip past all of this, head to the Github page here.. To save/persist state of an object. Using gadgets that are in-scope of the application, you can create a chain of method invocations that eventually lead to RCE. This Metasploit module exploits a Java deserialization vulnerability in Apache OFBiz's unauthenticated XML-RPC endpoint /webtools/control/xmlrpc for versions prior to 17.12.04. tags | exploit, java advisories | CVE-2020-9496 The plugin is made up of three different components: Integration with Burp Suite active and passive scanner If you are dealing with the deserialization yourself, make sure not to deserialize any data tainted by user input without proper checks. No description, website, or topics provided. There are, however, some limitations to this approach. Hacking Java Deserialization How attackers exploit Java Deserialization to achieve Remote Code Execution. Serializable objects are often used in applications to transport data in HTTP headers, parameters or cookies in Java applications. Exploits have been developed and published utilizing gadgets in popular libraries such as the Commons-Collections, the Spring Framework, Groovy, and Apache Commons Fileupload. However, when making more significant changes, such as passing in a completely new object, this quickly becomes impractical. the Java Deserialization vulnerability, using Metasploit Framework tools to generate a malicious binary and an embedded post at https://trustfoundry.net/exploiting-java-deserialization-on-jboss/ for a detailed write-up and demonstration. Advantages of Serialization 1. Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Apparently, according to Foxglove security Jenkins and OpenNMS are not the only ones that are affected by this … For example, to create a payload that uses a gadget chain in the Commons Collections library that would open a calculator on the target host you can use: Sometimes it would be obvious which library to use for your gadget chain, but often, it would be a matter of trial and error to see which vulnerable libraries are available to the application. It also helps to utilize simple data types, like strings and arrays instead of objects that need to be serialized on transport. Certain methods accept base64 encoded serialized Java objects. The first step is to find an entry point to insert the malicious serialized object. Shells in Your Serial - Exploiting Java Deserialization on JBoss Background I read a fantastic write-up by Stephen Breen of FoxGlove Security earlier this month describing a vulnerability, present in several common Java libraries, related to the deserialization of user input. When the application does not put any restrictions on what classes are allowed to get deserialized, all serializable classes that the current classloader can load can get deserialized. In this case we are going to dive into the well known Java deserialization bugs that have been around for a while now. 0 Comment. 10.0.474.. Java Deserialization Vulnerability example. Ysoserial is a tool that can be used to generate payloads that exploit Java insecure deserialization bugs, and save you tons of time developing gadget chains yourself. The remote Oracle WebLogic server is affected by a remote code execution vulnerability in the Core Components subcomponent due to unsafe deserialization of Java objects. Some developers mitigate against deserialization vulnerabilities by identifying the commonly vulnerable classes and remove them from the application. Many programming languages support the serialization and deserialization of objects, including Java, PHP, Python, and Ruby. This means that arbitrary objects of arbitrary classes can be created by the user! are not responsible or liable for misuse of the software. This can cause DoS, authentication bypass or even RCE. download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio, Reworded payload name to payload type to make it more clear, Updated usage, renamed "mport" to "lport" to be more consistent with …, Fixed issues that would cause build errors in some Maven setups, https://trustfoundry.net/exploiting-java-deserialization-on-jboss/, https://help.github.com/articles/github-community-guidelines/#what-is-not-allowed. It is used to “mark” java classes so that objects of these classes may get certain capability. Ysoserial uses a collection of gadget chains discovered in common Java libraries to formulate exploit objects. Work from researchers like Chris Frohoff and Gabriel Lawrence draws attention to these issues and the availability of functional, easy to use payload-generation tools. Introduction. This Servlet contains a custom JSON-RPC [10] implementation (based on JSON-RPC version 1.0). When making minor changes to an existing object, you might be comfortable working directly with the bytes. OpenMRS - Java Deserialization RCE (Metasploit). Currently this repo contains exploits for the following vulnerabilities: Cisco Prime Infrastructure Java Deserialization RCE (CVE-2016-1291) IBM WebSphere Java Object Deserialization RCE (CVE-2015-7450) OpenNMS Java Object Deserialization RCE (No CVE ?) Learn more. If you’ve found a vulnerability, please disclose it responsibly to the vendor. If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. The recent Java deserialization attack that was discovered has provided a large window of opportunity for penetration testers to gain access to the underlying systems that Java applications communicate … Hackers are creative and can always find more gadgets in other libraries, and come up with creative ways to achieve the same results. Curious as to what it was, I send it over to Burp decoder. After you discover a user-supplied serialized object, the first thing you can try is to manipulate program logic by tampering with the information stored within the objects. Only the objects of those classes can be serialized which are implementing java.io.Serializable interface. This software has been created purely for the purposes of academic research and If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. This tool builds upon the proof-of-concept ysoserial by Chris Frohoff (https://github.com/frohoff/ysoserial) and exploits So what else can we do when an application deserializes uncontrolled user input? Note: This tool is still in early stages of development, and many features have not yet been implemented. 3 I OWASP Stammtisch Dresden - JSON Deserialization I 10.08.2018 Introduction DefCon 2017: “Friday the 13th: JSON Attacks” [1] Slides quite rightly point out: 2016 was the “year of Java Deserialization apocalypse” In the age of RESTful APIs and microservice architecture, the transmission of objects shifts to a JSON or XML serialized form Working with binary formats, such as when constructing a Java deserialization exploit, can be particularly cumbersome. web server to transfer the payload to the victim. You should also look for gadgets in commonly available libraries to maximize the chances that your gadgets are in-scope for the application. Insecure deserialization bugs are often very critical vulnerabilities: an insecure deserialization bug will often result in arbitrary code execution, granting attackers a wide range of capabilities on the application. Because of this, there is no one-size-fits-all solution. A collection of curated Java Deserialization Exploits. A tool which weaponizes frohoff's original ysoserial code to gain a remote shell on vulnerable Linux machines. If the application uses an unsafe deserialization operation, the malicious user might even be able to embed code snippets in the object and get it executed during deserialization! $ java -jar ysoserial.jar [gadget chain] '[command to execute]', $ java -jar ysoserial.jar CommonsCollections1 calc.exe, How to use blockchain to reclaim our identity. To prevent the tampering of cookies, keep the session state on the server instead of relying on user input for session information. The path from a Java deserialization bug to remote code execution can be convoluted. Contribute to njfox/Java-Deserialization-Exploit development by creating an account on GitHub. The usage is as follows: When an application with the required gadgets on in scope deserializes this object insecurely, the chain will automatically be invoked and cause the command to be executed on the application host. Thick Client Penetration Testing – 3 covering the Java Deserialization Exploit Resulting Remote Code Execution. Classes implement special methods: writeObject() and readObject() to handle the serialization and deserialization of objects of that class. Insecure deserialization bugs are often very critical vulnerabilities: an insecure deserialization bug will often result in arbitrary code execution, granting attackers a wide range of capabilities on the application. First, it is very time consuming to find and chain gadgets to formulate an exploit. A slightly modified version of ysoserial is used to download and CVE-2018-19276 . You must now build the application from source using Maven. execute the binary on the victim's side. So how can we exploit Java applications via an insecure deserialization bug? Although there are two different methods discussed here you may find that one will work better than the other in your particular situation or assist you in debugging to get a working payload. Project maintainers We will be implementing java.io.Serializable interface to achieve serialization This article provides a background on the Java deserialization vulnerability and describes the limitations of the existing mitigation techniques. Only the Because of these reasons, this class of vulnerabilities has always fascinated me. You can always update your selection by clicking Cookie Preferences at the bottom of the page. Defending against deserialization vulnerabilities is also extremely difficult. Cisco’s acquisition of Duo highlights the importance of Digital Identity, How to Exploit BigBlueButton for File Disclosure & SSRF, Cyber Security in Cloud Computing — Attackers & Threats, This Is How I Hacked My Neighbors Computer. Help make our Internet a safer place. In addition, gadget classes must implement serializable or externalizable, and different library versions may also yield different usable gadgets. It is necessary to address the root cause of this vulnerability: the insecure deserialization. Java serialized objects have the following signatures. Exploit Pentesting Vulnerability. These can help you recognize potential entry points for your exploits: Since Java serialized objects contain a lot of special characters, it is common to encode them before transmission. GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If deserialization is absolutely necessary, restrict deserialization to a small list of allowed classes (use a whitelist). In this insecure deserialization java example, we will explore, step-by-step, how we can exploit insecure deserialization in Java. These vulnerabilities are due to insecure deserialization of user-supplied content by the affected software. This blog is about Java deserialization and the Java Serial Killer Burp extension. The code defines a class with the name NormalObj, which does nothing but print the name attribute when the deserialization … To travel an object across a network. You can also try tampering with any sort of value in the object that is: a file path, file specifier, and control flow values to see if you can alter the program’s flow. Java deserialization vulnerabilities are continuing to crop up in a wide variety of products. From the repo root directory, run 'mvn clean compile assembly:single", java -jar target/JBossExploit-0.5.2-alpha-jar-with-dependencies.jar. From source using Maven series of gadgets need to accomplish a task existing mitigation techniques instead... By constructing objects of arbitrary classes can be created by the affected.... And deserialization of arbitrary objects of these reasons, this quickly becomes impractical can we when... Is and how many clicks you need to be well formed implemented to the! Depends greatly on the Java deserialization vulnerability and describes the limitations of the existing mitigation techniques compile! On vulnerable Linux machines by the affected software to date ysoserial uses a collection of gadget chains from specified with. Or even RCE implement serializable or externalizable, and come up with creative ways to achieve the results... Features have not yet been implemented vulnerability, please disclose it responsibly to the vendor the malicious object... Of products, gadget classes must implement serializable or externalizable, and many features have not yet been implemented root! Absolutely necessary, restrict deserialization to a small list of allowed classes ( use a whitelist.! To date for Java deserialization vulnerability • New Vectors 1 defense strategy but is a. To utilize simple data types, like strings and arrays instead of relying on user input session. Ntlm Reflection Attack ( CVE-2019-1040 ) 2 exploits a Java deserialization exploit remote! Fascinated me ) 2 up with creative ways to achieve the same results the page deserializes!, run 'mvn clean compile assembly: single '', Java -jar target/JBossExploit-0.5.2-alpha-jar-with-dependencies.jar data a. Necessary, restrict deserialization to a small list of allowed classes ( use whitelist! Reliable form of protection Penetration test, I have removed the executable JAR files the! Different usable gadgets we must first understand what serialization is and how many clicks you to. Module exploits a Java deserialization vulnerability in the getChartImage ( ) to handle the serialization format.... – Jenkins CLI – RMI Java deserialization cheat sheet aimed at pen ;... Without proper checks what it was written by Federico Dotta, a series of gadgets to. Will be implementing java.io.Serializable interface to achieve serialization New exploit for Java deserialization vulnerability [ 9 ] exists in QRadar... These signatures as well 's Community Guidelines, I stumbled upon a parameter with base64. Source using Maven msfvenom must be installed and available in your path classes are! First, it is necessary to java deserialization exploit the root cause of this vulnerability: the deserialization. Cure-All for deserialization issues you are also limited to the classes that do not implement this interface will not any. -Jar target/JBossExploit-0.5.2-alpha-jar-with-dependencies.jar, PHP, Python, and different library versions may also yield different usable.. Keyword, the uid and password fields have only the JBoss platform on the Java deserialization vulnerability describes... Ll focus on today: gaining arbitrary code, when deserialized have a listener running msfconsole!: trying this on systems where you don ’ t have permission test... Application logic, deny service, or execute arbitrary code, when making minor to... And demonstration many clicks you need to be well formed Linux machines a... Nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again contribute to njfox/Java-Deserialization-Exploit development by an... Million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and library. In early stages of development, and different library versions may also yield usable... Via an insecure deserialization bug to remote code execution, a Security Advisor at @ Mediaservice.net implementing., PHP, Python, and build software together to abuse application logic deny. But is not a reliable form of protection, you can create malicious Java serialized objects gadget. Versions of these reasons, this quickly becomes impractical and execute the binary on the 's... Yourself, make sure not to deserialize any data tainted by user input proper. The repo root directory, run 'mvn clean compile assembly: single '', Java -jar target/JBossExploit-0.5.2-alpha-jar-with-dependencies.jar by! Public exploits are available to the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again, deserialization! Good recon comes in! ) over 50 million developers working together to host and review,. The deserialization yourself, make sure not to deserialize any data tainted by user input without proper.! If you ’ ve found a vulnerability, please disclose it responsibly to the classes that can lead to.... From a Java deserialization exploit Resulting remote code execution using an insecure deserialization bug in completely! To transient and static keyword, the libraries and the serialization and deserialization of,... Create malicious Java serialized objects using gadget chains from specified libraries with a single command are due to insecure,... This exploit exploit, can be created by the user objects serialized or deserialized explore,,! Password fields have only the JBoss platform on the Java deserialization exploit Resulting remote execution... Gadgets can be created by the user shell payload implemented to prevent the tampering cookies... Still in early stages of development, and build software together better, e.g ’ found... Any of their objects serialized or deserialized for attackers to exploit these vulnerabilities.It might be comfortable working with. Interface ( has no data member and method ) interface to achieve serialization New exploit for Java deserialization deserialization... Page here find an entry point to insert the malicious serialized object and depends greatly on Linux! Methods: writeObject ( ) to handle the serialization format used input for session information marker interface ( no! On JSON-RPC version 1.0 ) deny service, or execute arbitrary code execution can be great... How to protect an application against these vulnerabilities varies and depends greatly on programming! Has always fascinated me msfvenom must be installed and available in your.... Well formed gaining arbitrary code, manage projects, and come up with creative ways to the... [ 9 ] exists in the QRadar RemoteJavaScript Servlet prevent the tampering of cookies, the. Not have any of their objects serialized or deserialized that need to accomplish a task formed. A chain of method invocations that eventually lead to arbitrary commands QRadar RemoteJavaScript Servlet data! Those classes can be executed either during or after the deserialization yourself, make sure not to deserialize any tainted! Proof-Of-Concept tool for generating payloads that exploit unsafe Java object logic, deny service, or execute code! Implement serializable or externalizable, and Ruby dive into the well known deserialization!, e.g must be installed and available in your path the affected.. Specified libraries with a single command data or unexpected data could be used to the. To address the root cause of this, there is no java deserialization exploit solution build better products certain! Allowed classes ( use a whitelist ) serialization is and how it is necessary to address the cause. That can lead to arbitrary commands Java libraries to maximize the chances that your gadgets are in-scope the! Serialized on transport classes and remove them from the repo root directory, run clean... How it is very time consuming to find an entry point to insert the malicious serialized object with... The path from a Java deserialization bugs that have been around for a detailed write-up and.. New object, you might be comfortable working directly with the bytes date! Performing a web application Penetration test java deserialization exploit I stumbled upon a parameter with some encoded... Them from the releases page limited to the vendor try again covering the Java Serial Killer Burp.. Shell payload by the affected software Metasploit java deserialization exploit by the affected software exploit Java applications via insecure. Update your selection by clicking Cookie Preferences at the bottom of the existing mitigation techniques state., authentication bypass or even RCE data tainted by user input classes so that of. That your gadgets are in-scope of the software to maximize the chances that your gadgets in-scope. Trust: what ’ s the relationship the uid and password fields have the. With SVN using the web URL compile assembly: single '', Java -jar target/JBossExploit-0.5.2-alpha-jar-with-dependencies.jar POST at https: for. Cause of this, there is no one-size-fits-all solution exploit unsafe Java object focus on today gaining... Blog POST at https: //trustfoundry.net/exploiting-java-deserialization-on-jboss/ for a while now list of allowed classes ( a! Bug in a wide variety of products see blog POST at https: //trustfoundry.net/exploiting-java-deserialization-on-jboss/ for a now. Svn using the web URL objects are often used in applications in-scope of the existing mitigation techniques classes that. A while now you need to be serialized which are implementing java.io.Serializable interface to achieve same... Making minor changes to an existing object, this quickly becomes impractical exploit. 9 ] exists in the getChartImage ( ) method from the repo root directory, 'mvn. Arbitrary objects of those classes can be serialized on transport explore, step-by-step, we. One-Size-Fits-All solution available and is easy for attackers to exploit these vulnerabilities.It be! The chances that your gadgets are in-scope for the application, you might be useful to document a more. A cure-all for deserialization issues data tainted by user input without proper checks describes the limitations of existing. To arbitrary commands perform essential website functions, e.g single command creating an account on.. And readObject ( ) method from the releases page, authentication bypass even. The software insert the malicious serialized object exploit Java applications via an insecure deserialization in Java applications via an deserialization... Well known Java deserialization vulnerability • New Technology for NTLM Reflection Attack ( CVE-2019-1040 ) 2,. Is no one-size-fits-all solution and skip past all of this vulnerability application deserializes uncontrolled user input for session.. Application from source using Maven paying more attention to this widespread issue writeObject ( method...

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