Iturbide's fortunes reversed after his victory when a number of accusations of cruelty and corruption surfaced. Two years later he did not want to join Miguel Hidalgo in his uprising against the Spaniards; in fact, he fought the rebels until 1816. With this army he fought against the first independence movements in the country, fighting figures such as Miguel Hidalgo. ", RodrÃguez O., Jaime. After securing the secession of Mexico from Spain, Iturbide was proclaimed president of the Regency in 1821; a year later, he was proclaimed as the constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. There, he published his autobiography, Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of AgustÃn de Iturbide. That marked a turn in the war as Morelos would never again achieve the same level of competency as he had before this defeat. Another legacy that Iturbide left to Mexico was its modern flag, still used today. However, three days after Iturbide had been elected Emperor, Congress held a private session in which only it was present. Iturbide's persistence against the rebels was widely known as well as his views against their liberal, anti-monarchical politics. He may have been involved in the initial conspiracy to declare independence in 1809 that was headed by JosÃ© Mariano Michelena in Valladolid. , Santa Anna's army marched toward Mexico City, winning small victories along the way. Reports of a probable further Spanish attempt to retake Mexico reached Iturbide in England.  Poinsett also took advantage of the opportunity to proposition Iturbide's government on the issue of the US wish of acquiring Mexico's northern territories but was soundly refused.  Iturbide sent word to congress in Mexico City on 13 February 1824 offering his services in the event of Spanish attack. Then, on August 24, 1821, he met with Iturbide. According to the Plan, Mexico would declare itself independent, with a political system of moderate constitutional monarchy. Iturbide led the defenders. Iturbide's strategy of defining a plan and using the military to back it up started a trend in Mexican politics that would dominate until the 20th century.  In 1814, he had captured 100 women and incarcerated them into different houses in order to be "re-educated. The stanza translates as follows: "If to battle against the foreign host, the warrior trumpet invokes us, Mexicans, the Sacred flag of Iturbide bravely follow. Allegory of Merit Accompanied by Nobility and Virtue 1757 Fresco Ca' Rezzonico, Venice: The palace contains significant fresco series.  After that, he worked as an overseer at one of his family's haciendas for a short time, discovering he was a very good horseman. Iturbide's economic policies were draining resources as well. He was appointed protector of commerce, navigation, local order and ports and was given the right to expedite passports and navigation licenses even after the Emperor had been instated (and according to the Emperor's wishes). Very young, in 1805, he married and with the dowry received he acquired his own farm. Iturbide had what he could have possibly wanted before becoming Emperor, Anna notes, and so it is not probable that Iturbide conspired to appoint himself Emperor.  He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the provincial regiment. Retrieved from encyclopedia.com. Spain pressured Tuscany to expel Iturbide, and the Iturbide family moved to England.. At first its purpose was to create a government in Mexico of a monarchical nature, with Ferdinand VII occupying the throne. NAPOLEON III, HIS WIFE EUGENIA DE MONTIJO AND THEIR SON NAPOLEON LOUIS BONAPARTE ALLEGORY OF THE RESTORATION OF THE EMPIRE 2 marble tondos in a molded wooden frame diameter 38 cm each Signed and dated: 1859 / p. Ubaudi sculp. The strongest opposition to Iturbide's reign came from the Congress, where a significant number of its members supported republican ideas. Iturbide persecuted his enemies, arresting and jailing a score of former members of the Congress, but that did not bring peace.. His mother was of pure Spanish blood born in Mexico, and therefore, a criolla. Born in 1783 in Valladolid, now Morelia, began his career as a soldier in the Spanish Royalist army. De la Garza gave up without a fight and was presented to Iturbide, who chose to pardon the general and reinstate him in his old post. The Congress confirmed him and his title of AgustÃn I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, by a vast majority. The crowd included Iturbide's old regiment from Celaya. Recognizing the wishes of the country, Iturbide personally reopened the same Congress that he had closed in March 1823 and presented his abdication to them.  For that action, Iturbide was promoted to captain. Many of the followers of the Plan of Iguala entered the Scottish Masonic lodge, after feeling betrayed by the emperor. Retrieved from bicentenario.gob.mx, WikiMexico The abdication of the Emperor Iturbide. In Mexico, historical narratives were often symbolically depicted, as in At the beginning of 1823 Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás Bravo joined the revolt, although they were defeated at first. Bravo and Guerrero wrote that they swore to abide by the Congress's decision, even if it decided to stay as a Constitutional Empire and it elected Iturbide again to lead them. Combining documentary and experimental film techniques, Inheritance explores Ballenger’s familial lineage of addiction, merging the political with the familial. Available for sale from Robilant + Voena, Michael Sweerts, Allegory of Touch (ca. Iturbide had to go into exile, while Congress sentenced him to death. He arrived on July 14, disembarking at Soto La Marina. It was the first time since the mid-19th century that the date was commemorated. During the French Intervention the country would face Civil War amongst conservative, Catholic, Europe-adherent monarchists led by the ironically liberal Maximilian I of MÃ©xico, and liberal, masonic, anti-clerical, reformist and United States-adherent liberals led by the American-backed Benito JuÃ¡rez. The plan he proposed was to create an independent Mexico, although the Crown would be in the hands of one of the infants of Spain. In May 1823 he went into exile in Europe. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. , The plan gained wide support because it demanded independence without attacking the landed classes and did not threaten social dissolution. I die for coming to help you, and I die gladly, because I die among you: I die with honor, not as a traitor: my children will not be left and their posterity is a stain: I am not a traitor, no. Guerrero rejected the pardon but agreed to meet with Iturbide to discuss the independence of Mexico. The atmosphere was quite tense and Iturbide was losing supporters.  However, it is not clear whether he took the crown at the insistence of the people or simply took advantage of the political situation. The new Congress would also be in charge of issuing a new Mexican Constitution.  Iturbide and other Spanish commanders relentlessly pursued Morelos, capturing and executing him in late 1815..  In the meantime, Ferdinand VII rejected the offer of the Mexican throne and forbade any of his family from accepting the position, and the Spanish Cortes rejected the Treaty of CÃ³rdoba. Casa Mata also called for giving provinces the right to govern themselves in the interim until the new Congress was formed, an attractive prospect for the provincial governments. From 1810 to 1820, Iturbide had fought against those who sought to overturn the Spanish monarchy and Bourbon dynasty's right to rule New Spain and replace that regime with an independent government. His ashes were received in Mexico City with much pomp and ceremony, and the same Congress that had been against him for so many years gave him honor as a hero of the War of Independence, if not the short imperial reign after. All existing laws, including the 1812 Constitution, would remain in force until a new constitution for Mexico was written. , AgustÃn studied at the Catholic seminary called Colegio de San NicolÃ¡s in Valladolid, enrolled in the program for secular officials, though he was not a distinguished student. Given this response, Iturbide's reaction was to seek the understanding of the Spanish Crown. . The promise of independence convinced the insurgents to accept the proposal. He can also been seen as the first "caudillo," or charismatic military leader, who used a combination of widespread popularity and threat of violence toward opposition to rule and would be followed by the likes of Antonio LÃ³pez de Santa Anna and Porfirio DÃaz. " Timothy E. Anna points out that in the months between the achievement of Independence and his crowning as Emperor, Iturbide already practically ruled the nation, as he was president of the Regency, and the junta had granted him command over all land and sea forces. In the meantime, a regency would replace the viceroy. were heard first on that day. He turned down the offer to reclaim his post since he felt that his honor had been damaged. , The National Institutional Junta was directed to create much-needed legislation in economic matters, create a provisional set of laws for the Empire, and then issue a call for a new Constituent Congress. The soldiers escorting Iturbide prevented that from happening and would henceforth lead the former emperor on hidden roads, as the government feared a popular rising in favor of Iturbide. , The situation did not last long. To attract the disparate parties involved in the scheme, the plan offered three guarantees: Mexico would be independent from Madrid, Roman Catholicism would be the official religion, and all inhabitants of the new nation, later MÃ©xico, would be considered equals, with no distinction being made between Spaniards, Creoles, Mestizos, etc., thus eliminating the complicated caste system that had been used until then and abolishing the use of slaves in the territory of the new nation as well. Regardless, some encounters between the two military forces were unavoidable, as the troops of Guerrero and Pedro Ascencio (another insurgent leader) managed to force Iturbide's rear guard to withdraw from an ambush.
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